Majorca is the biggest island of the Balearic islands. Like the other Balearic islands Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera, Mallorca is an important touristic site.
With 3,630.11 km2 and 862,397 habitants according to the 2009 census (population density: 257.85 people/km2). For its quiet atmosphere, it's also known as the island of calm.
The oficial languages of the Majorcan island are Catalan as its own language and Spanish. According to the "Estatuto de Autonomía" of the Balearic islands of 2007, Catalan, the language of the Balearic islands will be the official language as well as Spanish.
HISTORY OF MALLORCA
The earliest objects found in Mallorca date back to 3500 B.C. in the Neolithic time, period of the transition of the bronze age, when the first copper objects had appeared. The first known residents of the island (of debatable provenance), were the balearic slingers.
In the municipality of Calvia, in Santa Ponsa, a small mountain called Puig de sa Morisca that contains an archeologic park with remains of burial caves and navetas that goes on for hectares.
Around 1300 B.C. crucial changes took place that resulted in the emergence of the talayorica cultura. This warrior cultura lasted until after Quinto Cecilio Metelo (that would later be receiving the sobriquet Balearicus), conquisted the island for the roman republic during the year 123 A.C. Due to the frequent pirate incursions to the islands, Rome decided to take over these islands. When the legend of the roman general had to protect its boats with animal skin, because the slingers who shot with their slings wouldn´t allow them to land. The roman legions took two years to submit the islands. After the conquest, the slingers began to take part of the auxiliar roman troops fighting prominently with Julio Cesar in the conquest of Galia.
During the year 425 Mallorca suffered the invasion and the looting of the vandals, in which Podgorico Walka, a german village that lande don the island until year 534, when the bizantine general Belisario ordered to conquest the balearic islands.
In year 707, the first muslim landing took place. Two centuries of permanent anxiety went by until year 903, when Mallorca was left under the power of the muslim dynasty of the Omeyas. The castle of Alaro resisted for 8 years, according to chronicles, and it was the last resistence refuge for christians during the muslim conquest. The Mallorcan Proto-Romance is then replaced by the arabic. After this, a flowering stage came, during which Madina Mayurqa, the actual Palma, was a great cultural centre. In 1115 a pisano-catalan squad attacked Mallorca during an expedition of punishment for pirate activity that used to take place in the island. Medina Mayurqa was looted and destroyed for the first time, and in absentia of Ramon Berenguer III, his men and allies ran away when they saw the almorávide squad, who attacked the Christian ships. Later, in 1203, the almohades took over Mallorca. In 1208, the almohades appointed Abu Yahya as the governator, who formed a semi-independent principality, with barely any formal submission to the emir almohade.
The aragonese tropos of Jaime I the conqueror, who arrived from Salou in 1229, conquested the island for the christians. After defeating Abu Yahya in the battle of Portopi (1229) and take and pass a knife to Madina Mayurqa (1230), the resistence ceased in 1231. Jaime I created the kingdom of Mallorca in his testament, understanding not only Mallorca, but the rest of the Balearic islands- Menorca (still under the power of a sovereign muslim), Ibiza and Formentera-; the counties of Rosellon and Cerdaña; and the territories that Jaime I conserved in Occitania (the señorio of Montpellier, the vizcondado of Carlades and the baronia of the Omelas. At his death (1276), his son Jaime II of Mallorca assumed the throne after the promise of the letter of the franchises. The independence of the kingdom was short. In 1349 it was reincorporated to the Crown of Aragon. King Jaime II´s death in the battle of Lluchmayor was the end of the kingdom of Mallorca. Although until his death in 1404 his daughter Isabel, established in the castle of Gallargues close to Montpellier, that was granted to the king of France Carlos VI, was claimed Queen of Mallorca.
During the time of Carlos I, in 1521, an uprising started similar to the ones from the Valencia kingdom (insurrection of the forans), arriving to Alcudia, where the nobility of the island hid. During the XVI century, the island, like the rest of the Balearic islands and the Spanish Levante, suffered the attacks and looting of the Turkish pirates and barbarians. During the Spanish war of succession, the island was owned by the Archiduqye Carlos de Austria, against Felipe de Anjou.